Admin. Impacts

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This is a huge subject that has many possible delay paths. This because it involves many participants, specification interpretation by all participants and the possibility of multiple review cycles. The full process completion is a predecessor to one or many field activities (schedule logic).

This is the last stage in the procurement time-line. Off the shelf items are not usually a major problem unless the supply is out or less than you require and possibly re-manufacture & restocking is needed. The major culprits are items that are not standard, require design and approval, fabrication, and/or sub-suppliers (secondary procurement). This is where procurement management fails to stay with the process (procurement chain) and delays (impacts) are not mitigated and corrected. This leads to last minute negative impact. Procurement chain management is a must!

This is the stage in the procurement chain that field management takes over or works together with Admin to complete the process. This stage, like the earlier stages, varies depending on the items being procured. All too often our construction schedule fails to connect pre- delivery items to their install activities, eliminating our early warning signs and not properly triggering the expediting process.

Once the equipment is on-site or available and the area of installation is ready (fully checked out), the equipment is moved into place and installed per manufactures instructions and good practice the hookup process (if required) begins. The equipment is tested, run with no load and deemed ready for startup.

When the system or full installation is ready the Full load runs and vendor commissioning is completed.

Every stage presents possibilities for impacting events, test failures, and items nobody thought about. A person or team (depending on size/complexity) should be assigned to planning/tracking all stages throughout the entire procurement chain process.

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Trenching on a jobsite can present a number of problems like, not following safety regulations, damaging new and existing items in the trench path, Blocking access needed by you and others to construction areas, and more.

Excavating is recognized as one of the most hazardous construction operations. OSHA revised Subpart P, Excavations, of 29 CFR 1926.650, 29 CFR 1926.651, and 29 CFR 1926.652 to make the standard easier to understand, permit the use of performance criteria where possible, and provide construction employers with options when classifying soil and selecting employee protection methods.

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Punch List Process

Punch lists are lists of corrective work require. Corrective work can be required for many reasons.

  • Contractors/subcontractors internal punch
  • Owner's Rep's punch list
  • Architect/Engineer's punch list
  • Code inspector's corrections list
  • Vendor's List during startup/comm.
Best practice is to inspect as you construct/install!

Most schedules are sadly deficient in showing punch/inspect/correct work and the effect on future dependent work.

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Contract Doc. Impacts

Contract Documents—Those items so designated in the Agreement, and which together comprise the Contract.

Drawings—The part of the Contract that graphically shows the scope, extent, and character of the Work to be performed by Contractor.

Specifications—The part of the Contract that consists of written requirements for materials, equipment, systems, standards, and workmanship as applied to the Work, and certain administrative requirements and procedural matters applicable to the Work.

Note in the following definition from EJCDC® C-700 that “Shop Drawings” are specifically not part of the Contract Documents. Note that Shop Drawings (All drawings, diagrams, illustrations, schedules, and other data or information that are specifically prepared or assembled by or for Contractor and submitted by Contractor to illustrate some portion of the Work, whether approved or not, are not Drawings and are not Contract Documents.

The contract documents are often the subject or spark that initiates all types of extra time and cost claims. Unfortunately the contract documents, especially the drawings that are not well checked and coordinated. Waste no time reviewing these documents to obtain early answers to E & O problems and poor dimensional quality. Making your own construction drawings and sketches helps to find E & O items early.

Defects in Plans and Specifications

An owner that had plans and specifications prepared is generally responsible for defects in those plans and specifications.{footnote}U.S. v. Spearin, 248 U.S. 132; 39 S. Ct. 59; 63 L. Ed. 166 (1918); Adams v. Tri-City Amusement Co., 124 Va. 473, 476, 98 S.E. 647 (Va. 1919) [The design of this wall was inadequate. For such a defect a building contractor cannot be held responsible, for it is his duty to follow the plans and specifications furnished as his guide by the architect as the agent of the owner].{/footnote} An owner is entitled to make changes, but where the change is necessitated by defective plans or specifications, the owner must pay the entire resulting damage. When the owner provides the plans and specifications, it implicitly warrants that compliance with the specifications will result in satisfactory performance.{footnote}Luria Brothers & Co. Inc. v. U.S., 369 F.2d 701, 707-708 (Ct. Claims 1966); E.C. Earnst, Inc. v. Manhattan Construction of Texas, 387 F.Supp. 1001 (S.D. Ala. 1974).

A construction contractor who has followed plans and specifications furnished by the owner that are defective or insufficient will not be responsible to the owner for loss or damage, which results solely from the defective or insufficient plans and specifications in the absence of negligence on the contractor’s part, or any express guarantee or warranty that the plans and specifications are sufficient or free from defects.{footnote}Worley Brothers v. Marus Marble, 209 Va. 136 (1968), citing Richmond Inc. v. Ewing’s Sons, 200 Va. 593, 595-96, 106 S.E.2d 595, 597 (1959); see also 6 A.L.R.3d 1394.{/footnote} A contractor who bids for work has the right to rely on the plans and specifications submitted to him for bidding purposes.{footnote}Raymond International, Inc. v. Baltimore County, 45 Md. App 247, 412 A.2d 1296 (Md. Ct. Spec. App 1980).{/footnote} The rights of the parties are to be measured by them. It is only through the plans and specifications that he can make an intelligent bid. Burdens other than those contemplated by the contract may not be placed on the contractor without additional compensation.{footnote}Worley Brothers v. Marus Marble, 209 Va. 136, 144 (1968), citing Wunderlich Contracting Co. v. U.S., 240 F.2d 201, 205 (10th Cir. 1957).

If the contractor is bound to build according to plans and specifications prepared by the owner, the contractor will not be responsible for the consequences of defects in the plans and specifications. This responsibility of the owner is not overcome by the usual clauses requiring builders to visit the site, to check the plans, and to inform themselves of the requirements of the work.{footnote}Southgate v. Sanford & Brooks Co., 147 Va. 554, 563 (Va. 1927), citing United States v. Spearin, 248 U.S. 132, 136, 39 S. Ct. 59, 61, 63 L. Ed. 166{/footnote} However, the contractor can become liable for defects in the plans and specifications through negligence or by agreeing to a contractual warranty or guarantee that they are sufficient or free from defects.{footnote}Chantilly Constr. Corp. v. Dep't of Hwys. & Transp., 6 Va. App. 282, 292 (Va. Ct. App. 1988); Modern Cont'l S. v. Fairfax County Water Auth., 72 Va. Cir. 268, 272 (Va. Cir. Ct. 2006).

The owner also is responsible for delays caused by faulty plans and specifications, including the failure to recognize the need for revisions in the plans and failure to make those revisions in a timely manner.{footnote}Luria Brothers & Co. Inc. v. U.S., 369 F.2d 701, 707-708 (Ct. Claims 1966).

When a general contractor supplies a subcontractor with plans prepared by the owner’s design professional, the general contractor impliedly warrants those plans to the subcontractor.{footnote}APAC Carolina v. Town of Allendale, 41 F.3d 157 (4th Cir. S.C. 1994); cf Gillingham Construction, Inc. v. Newby-Wiggins Construction, Inc., 42 P.2d 680 (Idaho 2002).{/footnote} Absent open and obvious design defects, which should be apparent to a prudent contractor and called to a prime contractor’s attention, the party who furnished plans and specifications impliedly warrants them to be fit for their intended use.{footnote}Miller v. Guy H. James Constr. Co., 653 P.2d 221 (Okl.App. 1982), favorably cited in Havens Steel C. v. Randolph Engineering Co., 613 F. Supp. 514 (W.D. Mo. 1985).

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Rough Construction


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Start-up & Comm.

The biggest impacts come from not being ready when the time comes. Not having a operating and maintenance manual, a startup sequence plan, an equipment or system startup plan and the proper people on-board and ready.

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Mob./Demob. Impacts

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Field & Site


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Finish Construction

Once inside wall framing begins typical trade crowding become a major scheduling and coordination issue. Most every trade subcontractor wants sole space occupancy. The tighter your schedule is at this stage the greater the risk of that dreded phrase "Trade Stacking" become the phrase of the day. Overlapping laydown ares, toolboxes in the way, scaffolding blocking access, overhead work over others working below, and much more starts to reduce efficiency and even cause minor accidents. This is where crew flow scheduling/planning becomes so important.

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Training & Turnover

Once commissioning is complete, it is the time to train the owner's staff and turn the facility over to the owner and their operating staff. This must be accomplished before the facility is open to the public to be used as intended. This process is not as simple as turning on a switch and opening the doors.

Why is this so important and who should be involved?


An inadequate turnover is a setup for inappropriate, ineffective, inefficient and poor/problem-ladened building operation & maintenance


One of the main causes is the failure to gather, organize and provide adequate O&M resources concurrently with construction


To Be Included:

  • Commissioning Team
  • Architect
  • Involved Design Engineers
  • GC and Involved Subcontractors/Suppliers
  • Owner's Construction Management Staff
  • Facilities & O&M Staff

  Owner/Operator Involvement in Cx
Cx to Facilitate Owner Training & Turnover
  Building Commissioning by the WBDG Project Management Committee and Commissioning Leadership Council (Last updated: 08-04-2015)

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James G. Zack, Jr.
Executive Director
Navigant Construction Forum,
Navigant Consulting, Inc.


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Impact Documents

Field Work Stopage

Activity/Task Work Stoppage


Speed Memos/E-mails

Delay Notification

Cost Impact Notification